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Forklift Battery Construction



This brief tutorial shows the primary stages of industrial battery cell construction and assembly of the various components to produce the finished product. Stages such acquisition and storage of raw materials, the production of the battery trays, cell jars, cell covers, intercell connectors, acid, etc. were omitted, but are virtually a business within the business.


image033 GRID CASTING: Lead bars, or “pigs” are continuously fed into the “grid” casting machines. The machines heat the lead to a liquid state, and then rapidly pour pre-set amounts into the molds to produce the grids. Once pasted with lead oxide, they become the plates that make up each cell of a battery.

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image033 COMPLETED GRIDS: As they are removed from the conveyor, each grid is inspected for proper thickness, stacked and palletized for transport to the pasting area. Positive and Negative grids are cast using separate specialized molds. Different cell sizes use different molds, which requires retooling between production runs.

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image033 GRID PASTING: The positive and negative grids go to separate pasting areas. The positive paste has a reddish color and the negative paste has a dull gray color. Quality control personnel are ever present during this critical stage. Positive pasting area (pictured):

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image033 Negative plates nearing completion:

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image033 PLATE CURING AND WRAPPING: The finished plates are then dried and cured in large ovens to harden the paste material. Once cured, the positive plates are wrapped, and the positive / negative plates are placed in the correct order with “separators” between them in preparation for initial cell assembly.

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image033 INITIAL CELL ASSEMBLY: Prior to inserting the plates into the cell jars, they are clamped tightly in a hydraulic jig, and the opposing rows of positive and negative plates are soldered together to form the positive and negative “straps”. The positive and negative posts are also formed during this process. Again, quality control is paramount at this stage.

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image033 INTERMEDIATE CELL ASSEMBLY: The assemblies are then inserted into the jars and placed on the assembly line. The covers are then heat-sealed to the jars.

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image033 FINAL CELL ASSEMBLY: The final stage of cell assembly is forming final positive and negative posts, which also form an airtight cover to post seal. The electrolyte is then added, and the cells are placed into tubs for transport to the charging area.

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image033 PREPARING CELLS FOR INITIAL CHARGE: Once the cells are filled and grouped according to size and customer order, they are connected together for the initial “formation” charge, which usually takes one week.

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image033 FORMATION CHARGE: The cell temperatures and electrolyte (acid) levels are constantly monitored during the constant current formation charge. The electrolyte levels are controlled by the white PVC inserts (pictured) to prevent overflow and plate drying.

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image033 FINAL ASSEMBLY: The charged cells finally merge with the trays for final battery assembly. The lead intercell connectors are put in place and the delicate process of soldering them in series begins. Any mistake at this stage could cause a lead melt down, which would damage the cell(s), requiring them to be removed and scrapped. Upon completion, quality control personnel thoroughly inspect each battery.

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image033 PALLETIZATION / PREP FOR SHIPPING: The completed batteries are then palletized, wrapped, banded and prepared for shipment. Special bracing is constructed around each individual battery to prevent movement or damage during shipment.

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image033 SHIPPING: The completed batteries are tagged and staged for pick up in the shipping area, and loaded for delivery to customers nation wide.

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Proudly Serving the following regions, states and territories: AL, AK, AR, AZ, CA, Canada, CO, CT, ND, DE, DC, FL, GU, GA, HI, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MT, NV, NJ, NY, NYC, NM, ND, NC, OH, OK, PA, PR, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, VI, VT, WA, WV, WI, and WY.

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